Magnesium is one the most important macroelements, a universal regulator of biochemical and physiological processes, which is above all due to its cofactor role in enzymes and modulating function in ion channels. As the second most frequent cation inside the cell, magnesium is involved in energetic, constructive and electrolytic metabolism.
Throughout the past few decades, reduced intake of magnesium is recorded. The main reasons behind this fact are the nutrition pattern and changes in environmental situation, general decrease of magnesium contents in the ecosystem. In the USA 2.5 to 15 % of general population have hypomagnesaemia; in Germany, this index reaches 14 %. In case of newborn infants in intensive care units, the frequency of hypomagnesaemia is in the range from 11 to 22 %. Among alcoholics, magnesium deficiency is present in 30 % of cases. As pathology of elemental status, magnesium deficiency in Russia’s population has the first position along with deficiency of iodine, calcium, zinc and selenium.
According to modern concepts, magnesium deficiency leads to:
1) Deficiency of functionally active enzymes,
2) Development of generalized inflammation with subsequent systemic connective tissue dysplasia,
3) Critical change in the Ca:Mg ratio and, as a consequence, disruption of electrolytic metabolism, basic biochemical and physiological processes.
According to recent studies, these changes are key factors of the development of a number of morbid conditions. For example, a variety of clinical signs of connective tissue dysplasia (mitral valve prolapse, increase of aortal and pulmonary artery diameter and hypermobility of joints, skin hyperelasticity) may be a consequence of reduced content of certain types of collagen or distortion of their ratios in magnesium deficient generalized inflammation. Imbalance of Ca:Mg ratio toward excess of calcium and magnesium deficiency contributes to angiolithic degeneration, leads to excessive thrombosis, atherosclerosis, myocardial arrhythmogenicity, development of urolithiasis and increased convulsive readiness. Functional deficiency of magnesium-dependent enzymes can cause reduction of "concentration" of Na-K-ATPase at diuretic treatment or activity of α-ketoglutarate:glyoxylate carboligaze under conditions of magnesium deficiency hyperoxaluria.
In recent years, in clinical assessment of magnesium deficiency and subsequent tactics of correction of detected elemental metabolic imbalance, there were cases of simplified interpretation of this complex state and attempts of treatment using different magnesium-containing preparations without necessary experimental evidences. Efficiency of magnesium-containing preparations substantially varies and literary sources often contain conflicting information on bioavailability of magnesium and, moreover, ambiguous parameters of acute toxicity of different organic and inorganic magnesium salts. Deficiency of magnesium-containing drugs in the Russian pharmaceutical market is probably due to the underestimation of this problem in the national health care and pharmacy. The preparation containing magnesium L-aspartate and pyridoxine hydrochloride, which was developed in close collaboration with pharmacologists of the Volgograd Medical University has better indicators of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
The diagram below shows the effect of magnesium salts (50 mg of elemental Mg per kg of animal body weight) on the amount of magnesium deficiency compensation in animal erythrocytes under conditions of alimentary hypomagnesaemia, % (rats).
The other diagram shows the effect of magnesium salts (50 mg of elemental Mg per kg of animal body weight) on the amount of magnesium deficiency compensation in animal erythrocytes under conditions of nephrogenic (furosemide intoxication) hypomagnesaemia, % (rats).
Next diagram shows the effect of the vitamin B6 on the amount of magnesium deficiency compensation in red blood cells of animals in case of magnesium salt infusion (50 mg of elemental Mg per kg of animal body weight) under conditions of nutritional magnesium deficiency (%).
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